Discussion post and participation
Format APA Volume of 4 pages (1100 words) Description In this Individual Assignment, you will review the Case Study on Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association of Congenital Malformations and Hazardous Waste (pp. 275-278). Based on the case study description answer the following questions: 1. What is the control group in a research study? How the control group is selected and compared with study group in presented study design?
Assignment type : Coursework
This is order contains a 3 part assignment
1. complete a course discussion .
2. complete an individual paper .
3. participate in discussion board till Sunday 12 am. must comment on two students work and also, respond to all comments addressed to initial post including the professor.
To prepare and complete this Discussion
In this Discussion, you will develop and present an analytical epidemiological study to investigate the association between the exposure to known and possible risk factors and childhood asthma as selected health outcome of interest. In your study proposal you must present proper rational and justification for the study by using relevant scientific information and community needs assessment. The importance and burden of selected public health issue must be illustrated by using relevant scientific information and evidence. You should explore relevant and credible external reference sources of scientific information and may refer to relevant and credible research-based studies to present the importance, relevance, public health and/or clinical significance, and novelty of proposed original investigation. In the absence of data and relevant scientific evidence, you may use hypothetical data in the description of proposed study; however, any hypothetical data must be scientifically valid (such as, the morbidity rate of asthma among selected target population and in selected study area). The discussion must include and address the following:
• Research Topic
• Introduction (Background) – a section used to illustrate the importance and burden of selected public health issues as well as importance, relevance, public health and/or clinical significance, need, and novelty of proposed study
• Research Question(s)
• Research Objectives
• Research Methods and Methodology – a sections used to describe specific study design, target population, sampling approach and hypothetical sample size, specific measures of association and significance, and preliminary statistical data analysis plan along with proper rational and justification of selected research methods and methodology. In this section you should also explain possible types and sources of bias along with specific measures taken to control for bias and confounding effect.
• Expected Study Results – a section used to explain what evidence will be provided by selected statistical tests and measures, and how the study findings will answer the main research questions. In this section you should also explain public health and clinical significance of your study results as well as how the evidence may be used to advance current public health and/or clinical programs, services and practice in the control and prevention of childhood asthma.
• Ethical Issues – a section used to define the main ethical concerns along with specific measures taken to ensure the safety and confidentiality of study subjects as well as proper and ethical research conduct.
Post by Day 3 your initial discussion, and respond by Day 4 to at least two (2) of your colleagues’ postings, and continue to participate in the discussions until Day 7. Your response discussions must include one or more of the following:
• Supportive scientific information or polite disagreement along with constructive critique by using relevant scientific information and/or credible research-based evidence
• Challenging or probing question(s) used to extend initial discussion and dialogue
• Added value scientific information and/or research-based evidence, specific and practical examples, alternative or different points of view, and constructive solutions or suggestions, which are used to extend the original discussion and supported by relevant and credible external reference sources.
You may present your personal opinion and/or professional experience in your discussions; however, note that the initial discussion and responses cannot be based solely on your personal views and experiences, and must include relevant and credible external scientific information and research-based evidence in order to support your own opinion and any personal experience-based statements. Cite all in-text citations and relevant external reference sources by using proper format and style by APA. Do not forget to respond to any comments, inquiries and questions posted by other peers to your original discussion.
2. What are the main confounding variables in the study, and what is the effect of confounding variables in presented study? What are the main limitations or weaknesses of presented study due to possible confounding effect?
3. From Table 1-12, which malformations had the strongest and weakest statistical association, and what was statistical significance of association?
4. From Table 1-13, which body systems were at risk of exposure to chemical leaks, and which associations were statistically significant?
5. From Table 1-14, which congenital malformations were associated with the exposure to chemicals according to calculated odds ratios, where the association was statistically significant? Explain how the association was measured and present the interpretation of Table 1-14.
6. Based upon three table and presented study results, what are the findings of the study with regards to exposure and proximity to hazardous waste sites and congenital malformations? Explain your answer by using relevant scientific information and evidence from presented case study.
7. What specific disease prevention and health promotion programs can be designed and implemented to reduce the risk of congenital malformations due to environmental exposure based on presented study findings?
8. Selected specific type of congenital malformation, and develop a web of causation for the disorder. You may conduct literature search to find additional relevant scientific information and evidence on causal factors and determinants of selected disorder by using online university library and other relevant and credible online reference sources.
Volume of 4 pages (1100 words)
In this Individual Assignment, you will review the Case Study on Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association of Congenital Malformations and Hazardous Waste (pp. 275-278). Based on the case study description answer the following questions:
1. What is the control group in a research study? How the control group is selected and compared with study group in presented study design?