Driving forces behind the “green wave”Driving forces behind the “green wave”Week 2Class OverviewNatural drivers of the Green WaveFilm: “The Story of Stuff”Stakeholders driving the Green WaveThe case of toxic chemicals
If we had to put value on the services and materials that nature provides to us, what do you think that value would be compared to GNP?Ecosystem services estimated at $33 trillion/year (avg.) – twice the global GNP ($18 trillion/year) The Top 10 Environmental Issues TodaySource: Esty and Winston (2009)Climate changeEnergyWaterBiodiversity and land useChemicals, toxics and heavy metalsAir pollutionWaste managementOzone layer depletionOceans and fisheriesDeforestationGlobal Climate ChangeThe ProblemOver the past 15 years, the world has already suffered over $1 trillion in economic losses due to “natural” disasters, roughly three-quarters of which were directly weather and climate related.
Simulation modeling shows that each year now brings 5.5 times as many weather-related natural disasters as 40 years ago, resulting in 13.6 times the insurance losses.
World Energy ConsumptionSource: US Energy Administration, http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/index.cfm2013 Renewable Energy Data BookSource: U.S. EIA, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/62580.pdf WaterTwo billion live in drylands — About 40 per cent of the earth’s land surface is drylands; one third of the world’s population lives in the drylands, most in developing countries. (CSD, 2008).
The State of World Fisheries & Aquaculture
Overall, 80 percent of fish stocks are fully exploited or overexploited (or depleted and recovering from depletion).
Source: FAO report 2008ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0250e/i0250e02.pdfAgricultural LandGlobal fertilizer use grew from 23 kg per hectare to 92 kg from 1961 to 2002 and the share of irrigated land increased from 12 to 19 per cent during that time. But yield growth has slowed and problems of water degradation, salinization and biodiversity loss have increased.
An estimated 22 per cent of all cropland, pasture, forest and woodland have been degraded since the 1950s.
In Australia to make 1 kg of bread, 7 kg of topsoil is lost forever.
Waste Generation, USAhttp://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw_2010_factsheet.pdfWaste Generation, USAhttp://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw_2010_factsheet.pdfUrbanizationJust over 50% of the world population lives in cities today
Cities with over 10 million:In 1950 – one (NYC)In 1995 – 14By 2015 – 21 (mostly in developing world)
DeforestationAbout 1.3 million square hectares of forest cover have been lost between 1990 and 2005 with the largest net losses taking place in Indonesia and Brazil and the highest rates of loss in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. China has experiences a recovery in forested areas. (UN CSD, 2008).Toxics and Hazardous WasteIn the last 50 years more than 100,000 chemicals have been developed and introduced into the environment. Only a few hundred of them are properly studied and regulated – 650 on the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) list.
Past century, several hundred billion pounds of pesticides have been produced and released into the global environment. Nearly 5 billion pounds of DDT, alone, have been applied since it was introduced in 1939 (DDT is only one of nearly 600 pesticides currently registered for use in the world).
PBTs (Persistent, Bioaccumulative & Toxic) chemicalsToxics TodayAsthma rates have reached epidemic proportions (15 million people; 50% increase since 1980).Cancer rates have increased in almost epidemic proportions over the past few decadesIn the l930s, one in ten Canadians contracted cancerin the l970s, that figure had increased to one in five today, one in three Canadians will contract cancer In U.S. 4 out of 10 people today will contract cancer at some point in their lifeOnly 10% of breast cancer is related to hereditary factors.Almost 90% of cancers are environment-related (Sandra Steinberger – “Living Down the Stream”)
The Story of Stuff
http://storyofstuff.org/ Small Group ExerciseWorking in your small groups select a specific product and discuss the following:What are the environmental impacts of this product over its entire lifecycle?Do you believe manufacturers have used “planned obsolescence” or “perceived obsolescence” in their business strategy to sell more products?What are some potential solutions (policy, business, education, etc.) to reduce the environmental impacts over the lifecycle of this product in the future? Why aren’t they implemented yet?Who Is Behind the “Green Wave”?Five core categories of stakeholders who care about the environment:Rulemakers and watchdogsIdea generators and opinion leadersBusiness partners and competitorsConsumers and communityInvestors and risk assessorsToxic chemicalsToxicity: the ability of a substance to cause a harmful effect (kills plants, birds, causes cancer, neurological and reproductive disorders).Toxics and Hazardous Waste60 million birds are killed annually by legal pesticide use in the U.S.DDT has been detected in the fat of polar bears.Every day, approximately 1 million American children age 5 and under are exposed to levels of neurotoxic pesticides in food that exceed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) safety standards.EPA has issued a federal warning for the consumption of freshwater fish by pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age due to high level of mercury.Body burden studiesToxics and Hazardous Waste Electronic wasteAccording to EPA, in 2005-2006 between 26 and 37 million computers became obsolete. For electronics products overall (cell phones, CRTs, TVs, VCRs): 1.9 – 2.2 million tons obsolete 1.5 – 1.8 million tons disposed 345,000 – 379,000 tons recycled
70% of heavy metals in U.S. landfills come from electronic discards such as circuit boards, wires, steel castings, etc.Computers for example contain many toxic chemicals – lead, cadmium, mercury, and chromium; PVC & phthalates. Computer and TV displays (CRTs) are considered hazardous waste (each monitor contains between 4 and 8 lb lead).EPA estimated 315 million computers became obsolete between 1997-2004 resulting in 1.2 billion lbs lead; 2 million lbs cadmium, 400,000 lbs of mercury; similar case with TVsMore than 6,000 computers become obsolete in California every day (Silicon Valley Toxic Coalition, www.svtc.org) Inadequate infrastructure to recycle electronic waste (27% vs. 34% for municipal waste).Growth in e-waste, EPA 2011THE TOXICS ISSUE REDEFINEDTraditional perspective:Compliance: fines and penaltiesLitigationEmissionsSuperfund sites
Evolving perspective:“Toxic Footprint”: what’s in your products and supply chain?
CONTEMPORARY SCIENCEThe dose
make the poison
The Chemicals Within Many common household products contain compounds that could be affecting our health.(February 4, 2008)
Making the Human Exposure and Product Connection Biomonitoring (body burden) studies“cord blood”, breast milk, amniotic fluid, etc.
Product analysesToysBibs and lunch boxesKids’ jewelryVinyl shower curtainsCosmeticsEtc.!!!!!
REGULATIONSEUROPEAN UNIONCosmetics DirectiveRoHS DirectiveWEEE DirectiveREACH
US STATESCaliforniaMaineNew YorkOregonWashington
California—The 28th EU State?California follows EU lead on:BFRsCalifornia RoHSCosmetics SafetyPhthalates in Toys“We watch what’s going on in Europe…it surfaces in California and then moves to the East Coast.”
(Senior VP, Merchandising, US Retailer)“It’s going to be hard to explain to our markets and our public in the U.S. or in Asia why the Europeans don’t think it’s safe for them, but we’re going to continue to expose you.”
Linda FisherChief Sustainability OfficerDuPont(quoted in Fortune Magazine, 4/2/07)Company Actions Linked to Shareholder EngagementSource: Rich Liroff, Executive Director, IEHN, www.iehn.orgWhole Foods Markets pulls BPA/phthalate child products; commits to reduce exposures to hormone disruptors
Sears Holdings develops PVC phaseout policy
McDonald’s agrees to track pesticide use for potatoes and promote Best Management Practices
ConAgra reduces PFOA in packaging
Wal-Mart, Toys ‘R’ Us Getting Tough on ToysThe Associated Press Saturday, Feb. 16, 2008 New lead paint standards tighter than U.S. federal standards
Phthalates in toys restrictions equaling California, EU standards
Provide to our customers affordable and effective products in which all chemicals are evaluated for potential health and environmental impacts delivered in the most efficient and effective way. GreenWERCS Screening Tool“GreenWERCS empowers retailers to drive sustainability throughout the supply chain. Now you can make informed decisions on the products you buy based on whether or not they include:
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) Carcinogens, mutagens or reproductive toxicants (CMRs) Probable endocrine disrupters Potential hazardous waste”
SC Johnson GreenlistSubstitution Progress, 2000-2008Seventh Generation Inc. www.seventhgeneration.comMission: “committed to becoming the world’s most trusted brand of authentic, safe, and environmentally responsible products for a healthy home.”Products: bathroom tissue, paper towels, baby wipers, laundry detergents, napkins, facial tissues, etc.Example: bathroom tissue – whitened without chlorine, 100% recycled (min of 80% post-consumer; 20% pre-consumer); free of dyes, inks, fragrances.You can make a difference: “If every household in the U.S. replaced just one roll of 500 sheet virgin fiber bathroom tissue with 100% recycled ones, we could save: 423,900 trees; 1 million cubic feet of landfill space, equal to 1,600 full garbage trucks; 153 million gallons of water, a year’s supply for 1,200 families of four”
Summary and conclusionsThe state of global environment continues to deteriorateBusiness is increasingly embracing “green” strategiesWhat we need today is:Effective government regulations & policiesConsumer awareness and demand for green productsBreakthrough technologies/disruptive innovationCollaborations and system’s thinkingOther?
For next classRead Veleva Ch. 1Read Solar City caseTeam 1 presents case analysis (Solar City)