Origin of Human Species
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Origin of Human Species
Human species are currently spread across the various parts of the world. However, their origin is an issue that is often debated upon. There are various viewpoints regarding the issue that can be analyzed to outline the possible origin of species. One of the most compelling arguments about this origin is through the theory that was founded by Charles Darwin, about the human evolution. In accordance to various scholars, human evolution is known to be a change process through which are known to originate from apelike ancestors. Moreover, we can see the evolution of human as the prolonged course involving transformation through which human beings originated from their ancestors who bear apelike features for a period of about five to six million years ago. A sub-category of studies called anthropology is the discipline that examines the roots of the human behavior, culture, and physical traits. Through this subfield, we can get the answers to various questions such as: What makes us human? How did our language, brains, religion, music, and art develop? When and why did humans start to walk upright? Through the approach of these questions from various angles, and the use of information provided from other supporting fields like archaeology, paleontology, molecular biology, and sociology, we can be able to understand the human evolutionary origins. Moreover, through scientific evidence people have been proved to share various behavioral and physical traits which originate from apelike ancestors and in a period of six million years, the traits evolved.
To be able to understand to origin of the human species, it is crucial to understand the available evidence that link the notion of human beings to ancient apelike ancestors through evolution. The archeological remains and early human fossils provide vital clues regarding the early past. The remains comprise of tools, bones, and any other proof (including the butchery marks on bones of the animals, footprints, or even proof of hearths) that was left behind by the early man. Normally, these remains were typically buried and well-maintained naturally. They are later exposed by natural features like rivers, rain, and wind erosion which make them exposed to the surface where they are found, or they can be found by digging in the ground through a well-designed process. Through the study of these fossilized bones, the scientists are able to learn more about the earlier humans’ physical appearance and how it was transformed through time. The bone shape, size, and the markings on the bone left by the muscles can be used to tell us how the ancestors held tools, moved around, and how their brain size changed over a long period of time. On the other hand, the archeological evidence means those things that the ancient people created and the regions where they are discovered by the scientists. When such types of evidence is studied, archeologists get to understand how early humans created their tools and used them, and how they lived in their environments.
The Human Traits in Apes
Bipedalism is one of the most ancient traits that define human beings. This trait refers to the ability of a being to walk on two legs, instead of four limbs. This trait is believed to have evolved more than four million years ago. Through the evidence gathered from the fossils excavated from various places, especially in Africa, it has been proven without any reasonable doubt that the bipedalism capability developed during the period when the human started developing their ability to use tools. Additionally, such traits have been displayed by the apes living in the forests on their daily routines as they search for food. The chimpanzees and gorillas in the contemporary world have the capacity to stand on their hind legs for quite some time before going back on fours, especially when they are carrying things in their hands that are heavy enough to require the support of both arms. From looking at the current locomotion ability of the apes across the globe, it becomes clear that we may have been like them millions of years ago, and specialized to walk on two with time.
It has been established through scientific studies that other significant characteristics of human beings like a complex and large brain, the capability to create tools from simple available materials, and the language capacity developed in a more recent time. The language developed with the development of the brain in the human. To prove this development, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology’s scientist Christel Schneider of Leipzig studied Bonobos at the Leipzig Zoo and their communication abilities. When they were filmed, the Bonobos appeared to be shaking their heads to mean “no” in discontentment in an attempt to make their kids to quit playing about with their diet and rather eat it. They also shook their heads when they wanted to stop their infants from straying. In one occasion, a mother was trying to stop her infant from climbing up a tree. She retrieved her bonobo baby, and then the infant continued to make efforts to scale the tree. The mother continued to bring her back every time. In the final effort, it ended with the mother pulling down the infant by the leg and shaking her head while staring straight at her baby bonobo. Even though the individuals who carried out the research are not sure if the bonobos really mean ‘no’ when they shake their heads, the results of their findings hint that this behavior is the early originator to the gestures we have as human beings in connection to negative head-shaking. This could have the beginning of many more advanced traits such as the complex art, symbolic expression, and ornate cultural variety, which could have emerged about 100,000 years ago.
Characteristics of Primates
Humans can arguably be said to be primates. The physical and genetic similarities show that the human species in the modern world, particularly the Homo sapiens, is closely related to a different primate species group, the apes. The large apes (the great apes) found in Africa such as the chimpanzees and gorillas share a single ancestor believed to have existed about 8 to 6 million years ago. The very first human evolution took place in Africa, and most of the rest of evolution also occurred on the same continent. The early humans’ fossils thought to have existed between 6 and 2 million years in the past have been found mostly from Africa. Whereas we humans lost our body hair in the course of evolution and massed our brains up, we are evolutionarily linked to those great apes as approximately 97% of our DNA genes match. Without even consideration of looks, scientists have established many other humanlike behaviors that our ape ancestors practiced.
Begging for Food
According to de Waal, other primates are for the most part astute at our gesticulations, and that is the main reason why the ape communication appears to be extremely human to us. These apes beg for food using an open hand, just in the same way the human beings who beg in the streets do. They also have aggressive gestures that appear to be extremely human, in addition to touch, stroke, and hug, and gestural repertoire which are similar to humans. ’ In a 2007 study that was conducted on our closest relatives alive, the bonobos and chimpanzees, the findings show that the primates are more versatile with foot and hand gestures when compared to the facial expressions. In the study, one juvenile chimpanzee displayed hand-waving savvy by mixing the begging gesture of reaching-out with a silent face of bared teeth. All this was done in an effort to retrieve food. When such observations are linked to the study that was printed by the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,” it becomes clear that human beings were communicating through sign language for a long time before they started to speak. In a different zoo in the U.K, another peculiar gesture was established in primates. There were various mandrills that were reported by the zookeepers that they were covering their eyes with one hand in an effort to tell other monkeys not to disturb. In connection to the human evolution, the University of California’s researcher Mark Laidre said in 2011 study that the sign language is the evidence of social culture displayed among animals, and that it is the first step towards the development of more advanced commination abilities.
Laughing out Loud
Another significant humanlike behavior displayed by apes is their laughing, especially when they are tickled. Their laughter is low-pitched in comparison to that of human, but their facial expression, waning and waxing of the sounds from their laughter are so eerily human to the point of making those people who are familiar with such vocalizations to start laughing too. Moreover, research suggests that the human beings holler and hoot on exhale while laughing, similar to the way chimps do, and both species laugh with an interchanging air flow, both in and out. In a research that was conducted in 2009, the scientists examined and recorded sounds of chuckles induced by tickling the young bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, and likened them to the one of human infants. The researchers also explored how the vocalizations match with the primates’ family tree. The best fit in matching them up would be used to show how closely related one species is to the other, on basis of their genetic composition. When all the findings are combined together, the results showed that the species share a common evolutionary origin for the laughter generated through tickling in both human beings and those other great apes. This study was conducted by Marina Davila Ross and her colleagues from the United Kingdom’s University of Portsmouth and was published in the Current Biology journal.
The origin of fairness in human nature have approximated to date some time back in the evolutionary time. The evidence that has been provided to support the claim is shown by the various primate species that have been found to fuss over inequities. In a 2007 research that was printed in the journal “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,” researchers tufted Cebus paella (capuchin monkeys) to play game that required every pair of the monkeys to give a small rock of granite to a human being so that they can get a reward in return. The reward would be in form of either a slice of cucumber or the other more desirable grape. In the activity, when one monkey gave the granite stone to human and was given a grape in return, whereas the second one did the same and landed a cucumber, madness followed. The monkeys showed that they had an ability to recognize an unfair situation. This is a very crucial step in the maintenance of relationships in cooperative societies like the ones in the capuchins community and human beings. The connection shows that the two are very closely related, thus linking up the origin of the modern man to the ancient apelike creatures that bear the characteristics of the existing large apes and monkeys .
Dispersion of Human
It has been proven beyond any doubt that the origin of human beings is highly connected to the apelike ancestors that existed about 6 million years ago due to the physical characteristics and behaviors. However, the scientific proof show that these ancient beings lived mostly in Africa, where most of the archaeological and fossil evidence is found. Therefore, the question that remains is how they came to spread all over the globe, inhabiting each and every part of the land-mass, and even those parts that barely support life. According to the existing scientific evidence, early humans first moved out of Africa, to Asia perhaps between 1.8 million and2 million years ago. Sometime later, they entered Europe between 1 and 1.5 million years. Much later, the human species of the modern man came to populate the world. For instance, the earliest people moved to Australia possibly about 60,000 years back, and later on about 30,000 years back moved to the Americas. Agriculture and the first civilizations started in the past 12,000 years.
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