Role of the micro-cinema in the era of multimedia
Role of the micro-cinema in the era of multimedia
Purpose of dissertation
Evidently, with the globalization of the world taking a toll on institutions, the communication and multimedia industries have seen the emergence of short film websites. Actually, the internet and social media platforms have been affected by the micro-media websites as short films and videos are now easily accessed and shared to millions of internet users. With this in mind, the main purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the application of the micro-cinema in the era of multimedia.
Research methodology used for the study.
The study opted to use interviews with open-ended questions to address the application of the micro-media in the era of multimedia. This was specifically to address the implications that these media platforms had on the business systems, besides addressing the social systems involved in the micro-cinemas. In this case, the researcher sought to address the problem at hand by developing a qualitative research study and getting to find ot the perceptions and feelings of different individuals who were mainly involved with the use of the internet. A total of 30 respondents were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Through face to face interviews, the responses made included the attitudes on the use of the platforms, the feelings projected from these platforms and their use and the impact that micro-cinemas had to the individuals involved
The study findings.
The results show that the main aim of the micro-media platforms has been improving communication. The findings showed that through the platforms, many businesses have been able to market their products and other individuals air different views on different topics. The findings show that through models like partnering, mergers and acquisitions, investors were now involved in the micro-media industry.
Originality/ value and implications of the study
However, the findings shed light on the regulatory systems put in place to address the issues of bullying and presenting authentic information. The findings point out that there are direct advantages of employing the use of these platforms to market products for different business companies. Nonetheless, the research recommends more studies on procedures used in the implementation of policies and strategies to reduce issues addressed in the online platforms such as bullying and authenticity.
1.1 Introduction and Background (1500 words)-
According to the online dictionary, Oxford Dictionary (2015), micro-cinema is a term that describes the short films that are put on a narrative and present a creative kind of entertainment. On the other hand, Owjang (2007) address the micro-cinema as the user-generated content that can be used to present independent films or videos that are low budget. More so, the Oxford Dictionary (2015) says that micro-cinemas are amateur films that are mostly digital videos that are edited and distributed via video tape, disc or over the internet. Generally, these presentations show that the micro-cinema is used to showcase artwork, impressions, short animations, bizarre films and other experimental films (Owjang, 2007; Oxford Dictionary, 2015).
Contrastingly, de Ville (2014) says that micro-media is a general term that mainly addresses the passing of small chunks of information through specific channels that are wired unilaterally or through a variety of contents such as videos, blogs or even online feeds. For instance, de Ville (2014) identifies an individual passing a quick audio or even a quick video message to a target audience who are watching a live program on youtube. Owjang (2007) reckons that such material passed in form of micro-media from the host by creating quick hooks that are captivating to the audience. Furthermore, Owjang (2007) says that this has contributed to companies that produce gadgets such as mobile phones or computers to develop devices that have onboard cameras that can be used to capture a video very quickly.
On the other hand, based on the responses analysed from an interview with the Vice President of Digital Marketing, Fleshmann Hillard group, affirms that the digital era has seen people move from traditional tactics of figuring out exactly what is right for clients to using direct tactics of marketing (Owjang, 2007). Moreover, it is undoubtedly that in the last few years, there has been a significant growing interest in the use of the online websites such as youtube to address various needs of customers (Kim, 2008). Short films and videos are subsequently being used by marketers to advertise their services or products based on what they deal with (Kim, 2008).
1.3 Background to the study
In the last few years there has been a growing interest in media and the contribution of the media to the changing world (Owjang, 2007; de Ville, 2014). To begin with, Kim (2008) says that the media has continuously to center much focus to the everyday life as it is ubiquitous yet still unconspiqious. According to Kim (2008), with different preferences many film practitioners in the film industry have gone ahead to diversify their methodologies of messages to the different people. On the other hand, a study by de Ville (2014) forecasted on the urban environment and the increase in the use of microcinema. According to de Ville (2014), cultural differences and social environments have continued to be diverse due to the globalization. As a matter of fact, de Ville (2014) says that due to globalization, public culture in different countries has continued to influence the development of the mainstream film making industry in many of this nations. In actual sense, Kim (2008) acknowledges that media consumption and everyday life in Asia has encouraged the emergence of people needing the consumption of news from political life, socio-economic cultures and cultural systems. In particular, Kim (2008) says that these are the forces that have been getting rapidly growing in the global market. People are constantly engaging in films; either watching, creating or editing of these films. The continued use of such sites like youtube, youku in china, vimeo and tudou has seen the internet to be populated with many videos from companies advertising their products and marketing materials using arbitrary lengths. So one might ask who are the users of these micro-media services and how has this practice flourished in the last few years?
1.4 The research problem
With an increased usage of the internet, the micro-media platforms have continuously encouraged people to access information very fast. With the development of internet and these social media sites, the development of short films has seen many mainstream platforms develop their own sites to transmit short video messages, with many people now considering uploading short video records. People are generally involved in uploading their day to day activities in short videos. This has encouraged many people to direct their day to day life to the use of micro-media platforms. Businesspersons are even using short films that they upload to these sites to market their services and products. By taking short films with their mobile phones, tablets and even laptops, advertisements can now be uploaded directly to these sites from where the customers will view these advertisements. This has shown the level of contribution that the use of short films has developed in the recent past. With this in mind, this dissertation sought to investigate the development of micro-cinema and its influence in the era of multimedia. This will be so while addressing the contribution that micro-cinema has made to the civilization of the world.
1.5 Rationale (reason for the study)
With the censorship of the internet platforms such as Youtube, Twitter and Facebook by the Peoples’ Republic of China, many other platforms have been developed in the country. With sites such as Youku, Tudou and many others, the Chinese internet uses are still among the highest in the world (Crampton, 2011). Actually about more than 420 million internet users are found in China. Actually, in the recent past, about 2.7 hours is spent on the internet daily with many Chinese netizens viewing online videos posted in these sites (Crampton, 2011). With such programs on demand such as Youku and Tudou, many business companies that deal with online videos have been started, with many presenting various material, from advertisement to other TV content (Crampton, 2011). The consistency in the growth has seen the number of online users grow exponentially. This actually calls for questions that address the contribution and impact of the micro-media as a communication platform.
1.6 Aim and objectives of the study
The main aim of conducting this study was to investigate the application of micro-cinema in the era of multimedia.
Equally important, the study sought to address the following research objectives:
1. To examine the major video hosting websites used for mico-cinema in the multimedia era.
2. To investigate who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas.
3. To investigate the viewers who watch micro-cinemas.
4. To find out the who are the investors of these short films in micro-media.
5. To determine the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization.
1.7 Research questions
The main research question designed for this study was:
Is micro-media a business marketing tool or an image for an independent character art?
The research questions that were to be designed from the main research question:
1. What is the role of the micro-cinemas to business?
2. What business models work best with the use of micro-cinemas?
3. How has micro-cinema changed the way people engage with each other through sharing of thoughts and interests?
4. What are the development prospects of micro-cinema?
1.8 The relevance and contribution to the study
This study will be of significance to various areas concerning the passage of information with the use of micro-cinema. The findings can be used by companies and individuals to identify the main uses of the micro-cinema in industries. More so, the findings to be made from this study will help businesspersons to identify the most suitable models to use in passing information to different parties. In addition to this, the study will of significance to the information companies as it will help individuals identify the various systems to use when passing coded information between parties. The study findings will help address methods of passing information and the most effective methods to use when sharing information and videos.
1.9 Structure of the dissertation
The first chapter has seen the presentation of an introduction to the study by presenting the research objectives and the rationale of the study.
The remainder of this paper is organized into the following chapters:
Chapter two presents the literature material by analyzing various research findings presented by other artists concerning the topic. This is based on the extract material collected from different views made concerning the research problem.
Chapter three presents the research methodology employed by the researcher to perform the study.
Chapter four shows the findings made from the research study. In this case, it presents the results addressed from the research study.
Chapter five analyses the findings made during the study. In addition the chapter discusses the research findings made from the study.
Chapter six summarizes the results of this research study by drawing the conclusions and making further recommendations.
Chapter 1 Literature review (5300 words)-
Chapter 2 Introduction
This chapter presents the literature review based on the different views presented by various authors (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). To begin with, the chapter has a general overview of presenting the role of micro-cinema in the era of multimedia by addressing the research objectives. Therefore, the aim of the literature review chapter to address the research questions by examining the existing body of text to extract the critical points of the present knowledge including key findings, methodological and other theories addressing contributions to a specific subject (Saunders et al., 2007). In line with this, this chapter examines the extant literature on the micro-cinema, the main users of the micro-cinema, the various individuals who use the micro-cinema for business purposes and the significance the micro-cinema has had on the business industry. For this case, the most recent literature was evaluated in order to explore the varying views and opinions as presented by different authors regarding the impact of micro-cinema in the era of multimedia (Saunders et al., 2007). The evaluated literature was then compare with findings made from different researches presented by the authors. In particular, the literature material sought to address the main purpose of the study while identifying the main objectives of the study (Saunders et al., 2007). For instance, the research sought to address the role of the micro-cinema in the era of the multimedia. The main part was to identify the micro-media systems that influenced the business platforms and industries. With these literature, the researcher examined the major video hosting websites used for micro-cinema in the multimedia era. Additionally, the methods presented enabled the researcher to investigate who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas and the main viewers of such contents uploaded in micro-media platforms. On the other hand, the literature sought to present various views on who are the investors of these short films in micro-media. Whilst addressing the views as presented by other researches, the literature developed addressed the major contributions of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization.
2.1. Major video-hosting websites for micro-cinema
Much research on media has been done in the recent times; much of it seeking to address the various contributions of media to society and the overall growth of the industry (Leary, 2009; Pikas, 2006). More so, previous research has documented the different types of multimedia platforms and the contribution the media industry has had on the development of democracy in different countries (Coonan, 2015a). Nonetheless, the number of video-hosting websites has continuously grown in the recent past at exponential rates, resulting to several researchers such as Coonan (2015b), Cong (2013), Hongjuan. Yi, Huiwei & Yu (2011) to focus much of their research on these micro-cinema video-hosting websites. For instance, according to Hongjuan et al., (2011), the creation and development of the youtube, the giant American video-hosting website has been widely researched. On the other hand, sites such as vimeo, Tuduo and Youku have seen an advancement in the Chinese market, hence attracting various studies on the micro-media (Coonan, 2015b). Actually, Cong (2013) agrees with Coonan (2015b) that these online video sites have had an increased need for research. Actually, Hongjuan et al., (2011) says that with these studies, many have been able to understand the communication systems that come with such internet sites. In particular, these authors say that with such sites, there has been an availability of more procedures of gaining a large audience and communicating with many cultures.
The results obtained by Leary (2009) in the paper on the urban exclusion in the civil societies suggest that a number of business organizations and societies have gone further to use of videos to pass information that apartain marketing, critical analysis of leadership systems and the use of devices such as mobile phones, webcam and video/digital cameras. For instance, the Asian Fellowship Fondation presents fellowship programs that teach media practitioners on the perspectives of using the media systems to pass information. This fellowship program has gone ahead to offer various researches and forums on the use of youku, tudou and vimeo in video conferencing (Alejandro, 2010). This suggests that the micro-cinema, as used in the internet, could be used in mentorship programs, whereby researchers can pass information to larger audiences using means that are fast and accessible. However, one limitation of this research is that it does not address the main problem that is the different micro-media platforms that have developed in recent times, especially in the era of multimedia. To answer this critique, the literature presented by Jaimeson (2010) addressed that one major problem in these media platforms is that with a diversity of audiences and usage, there has been an increased level of information that misled many and that online attacks have come up. Such systems tend to bring in the communication systems that have been presented with the use of these internet systems and the cyber cultures that have developed (Jaimeson & Hall, 2010). Actually, one can agree with these presentation that the internet has generally led to increased attacks that are unmonitored as casual communication has been allowed to happen. Despite this claim, the popularity of the micro-media remains significantly studied by various authors such as Crampton (2011) and Pikas (2006) who specifically analyze the media platforms that have developed in recent times. Actually, Crampton (2011) posits that the world has witnessed the emergence of User Generated Content (UGC) video systems such as Youtube, Youku and Tudou. More so, it is evident that the popularity of youtube is far much greater than the other two as its growth has seen an estimated half a billion videos uploaded throughout the world, attracting more than 1.5 trillion viewers in the end (De Ville, 2014; Crampton, 2011). On the other hand, the popularity of Tudou and Youku has been growing significantly in China (Coonan, 2015a; Coonan, 2015b). For instance, Coonan (2015a) suggests that Tudou has had a 1 petabyte per day of the use with the users growing to over 7 million users in China. These authors agree that the use of these video sites has been made easier by allowing users to have plugins only and present their videos to their peers and other individuals.
However, with such systems and evident growth, the approach used by the designers have had to deal with other problems that come with an increased number of users (Coonan, 2015a; Pikas, 2006). Specifically, Coonan (2015a) and Pikas (2006) say that video traffic has been felt in the recent times as the numbers of the netizens seem to have increased exponentially. The concern that develops from this is the effect of internet hang-ups (Coonan, 2015a; Pikas, 2006). Pikas (2006) points out that the use of Youtube and Youku Tudou has seen the growth of users per second grow; causing an increase in the traffic in these media platforms. This point is agreed upon by Ken-ichi (2014)’s work who presented that with an increased number of users, the bandwidth with these platforms has seen increased hang-ups caused by traffic by the many users. While such failures must not be discounted, the researchers such as Jaimeson & Hall (2010) acknowledge that these systems have gone further to address these problems. In particular, Jaimeson & Hall (2010) say that the companies have gone ahead to develop multi-user designs such those of Youtube and Youku Tudou allowing many users to use the systems at one particular time. Increasingly, the problems of cache development and peer issues need to be addressed as the number of individuals performing idle presentations has also increased significantly (Liu, Zhang-Shen, Jiang, Rexford & Chiang, 2008). However, with increased bandwidth and peer-assisted UGC, the design and restriction of the cache has been handled by many of these companies.
Differently, Parvez, Williamson, Mahanti & Carlsson (2008) presented that with improved technology, microcinema has seen many people reframe video content by using the technologies such as mobile phones and other laptops. Parvez et al., (2008) point out that such digital frameworks are the main platforms that are now used for the presentation of the video content. Such frameworks allow a small size of the videos and hence Parvez et al., (2008) suggested such frameworks have seen the advancement of the microcinema in the video industry. This reports by Parvez et al., (2008) have nonetheless been criticized by various researchers such as Huang, Li & Ross (2007) who say that this presentation has been passed with time. In these critiques, Huang et al., (2007) reckon that the use of such medium is evident in the current industry. Actually, Huang et al., (2007) agree that there has been an advancement in the cinema industry, but differ on the view that micro-media is evidently seen in platforms such as the youtube, vimeo, tuduo youku (Birnholtz, Finholt, Horn & Bae, 2005). Birnholtz, Finholt, Horn & Bae (2005) posit that with micro-media, individuals are able to show-case small-gauge films such as experimental films, artwork, advertisements and other impressions.
As a matter of fact, while they see Huang et al., (2007)’s reports as more on the theartre industry, Birnholtz et al., (2005)’ did not look at the overall significance that the internet sites play in the communication industry. The authors seem to ignore the idea that theartre has been at the forefront in presenting material that are made from plays and other video content on their products as a way of getting to a larger target audience. While this is true, it is also reasonable to look at McCarthy & Boyd (2005)’s literature presentation that addressed the overall significances of the use of youtube, youku, tudou and vimeo in other industries such as the television industry. In their presentations, McCarthy & Boyd (2005) present that with available equipment, there has been plenitude of cultural products from the cinema industry that play significant role to the daily lives of people that such platforms can help present. For instance, with over 90% of ownership of phones in Asia alone, with the globalized world in place, journalists are now able to pass mini-content with uniqueness and plausibly powerful motives that bring about deep meaning to the experiences of day-to-day life. Generally, the authors posit that with these media platforms, connectivity has grown significantly.
Furthemore, several other authors such as Wei (2007) and Lamb & Davidson (2005) seem to agree that the use of youku, vimeo, youtube and other platforms such as tuduo has seen the micro-cinema industry gain lots of momentum. For instance, Wei (2007) says that with an exponential rise in technology, specialists have developed peer-assisted UGC systems that allow individuals to upload and download videos in certain bandwidths. and Lamb & Davidson (2005) similary say that platforms such as vimeo need to have peer-assisted UGC systems that allow users to optionally present their video material.
However, other authors such as Shaofang (2007) and Crampton (2011 point out the technical requirements that come with using micro-media platforms. For instance, Shaofang (2007) says that for proper download and upload of contents, these systems need to have plug ins to collect a large amount of cache. However, there is a challenge that comes with the size of upload and download of videos using the micro-media platforms. One example is that the size of the video content has specifically been the major issue that these media have encountered (Crampton, 2011). This seems to ask the quantity of work that these platforms can allow to be uploaded. Nonetheless, it is evident from Shaofang (2007)’s research findings that tuduo has a significant amount of bandwidth designed for the contents allows videos of certain length. The author posits that Tuduo has allowed larger size videos to be uploaded and downloaded by the netizens.
Nonetheless, despite the various disagreements on the platforms used in the micro-media, it is evident that the growth of these systems is at a very high rate, with the number of users growing each day (Liu et al., 2008).
Moreover, Kim (2008) identified the platform ‘tv.suhu’ which is majorly involved in the entertainment by providing an outreach program. According to Kim (2008), the online site has allowed information to be shared between individuals using mobile phones, smartphones, tablets and computers. While this is true, Kim (2008) failed to show the cooperations involved with tv.suhu to help in reducing costs in the world of video sharing. However, looking at Coonan (2015b)’s research presentation, it is evident that there has been a level of cooperation in the procedures employed in the partnership programs by tv.suhu. Coonan (2015b) points out that there has been cooperation between tv.suhu and v.qq.com and others like iQIYI. These reports seems to point out that besides these micro-media identified in this chapter, there are others that include v.qq.com and iQIYI. While identifying that v.qq.com is identified as one online video sharing platform, Coonan (2015b) presented that the platform has actually grown significantly in the recent past. Actually, Coonan (2015b)’s researches found out that in the last few years, the platform has grown in the number of users to over 780 million users. In the same manner, Fowler & Ridout (2013) found out that the number of visits has grown to over 300,000 users per day. These reports acknowledge that with the improvements, there has been a significant rise in the number of platforms that have been developed for the purpose of sharing videos online (Coonan, 2015b; Fowler & Ridout, 2013).
2.2. Film-makers and Viewers of micro-cinema
Current studies on microcinema has not addressed much on the viewers and the film makers in the industry (Green & Gerber, 2008). Actually, few authors address the stakeholders involved in making of these films and those who watch/view these micro-cinema. Specifically, authors such as Huang, Fu, Chiu, Lui & Huang (2008) and Tsukayama (2013) have addressed kind of viewers and the makers of these videos that are operating in the current world. Tsukayama (2013) points out that the main users of these sites has actually grown to over 770 million users by the end of 2014. However, there seems to be a significant drawback when addressing the main users of these media platforms is that Tsukayama (2013) majorly points out the total number of viewers and film-makers. This point is also sustained by the reports presented by Huang et al., (2008) on the growth in the number of these users. According to Huang et al., (2008), the rates of growth in the bandwidth of the users has grown significantly with Tuduo having the largest users per minute. On the other hand, Sulivan (2013) says that these sites have been used by television producers, film makers and other corporate organizations mainly to advertise and pass information to the audience. For instance, the television coorperations have had to train their journals so as to get a level playing field as the growth of these online video sharing platforms are increasing the level of competition (Pikas, 2006). This illustration shows that while television companies have invested in the business, the film makers in the industry are the journalists, who make video content that triggers debate and provide different dimentions of the global cultural systems (Pikas, 2006). More so, Alejandro (2010) posits that when compared to youtube, tudou has risen in the number of users mainly because of the duration of videos and content that these individuals upload. For instance, according to Alejandro (2010), when comparing the two communication platforms, tuduo allows 5 bytes per minute compared to youtube’s 3 bytes per minute. One question that can be asked from these presentation concerns the main users of these platforms. Nonetheless, while such critisims are evidently important, Elliot (2006) agrees with Alejandro (2010) that with such number of users, tuduo has grown in the net ratings to over 40 million visitors in tuduo per minute. Actually, tuduo has grown to over 50% coverage of the video market in China alone. In particular, Elliot (2006) shows that with over 50,000 videos the company has allowed such numbers to be published daily. However, the naivity of these findings by Elliot (2006) is that the author fails to clearly address the type of filmmakers and viewers of these videos. Nonetheless, looking further into the discussions made by Elliot (2006), one notes that Elliot (2006) has presented the users of these online video presentation and sharing micro-media platforms. For instance, Elliot (2006) says that such video contents published might generally be original videos from bloggers and original content from television clips and other videos shot by cellphone users. On the other hand, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) point out that users include registered and unregistered users. Actually, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) say that registered users are permited to upload unlimited numbers of videos using the operating system- based upload tools.
2.3. Investing in micro-cinema: A look at the short film in micro-media
Current research on the business views that address the investment into the short film has seen significant rise due to the continued globalization in the world and the changing business environment (Massoulie, Twigg Gkantsidis & Rodriguez, 2007). On the contrary, Fry (2006) says that most investors are potentially the business organization involved in media, who seem to place lots of attention on the large- and mid-cap stocks, forgetting that these industries seem to rather slip in returns (Massoulie et al., 2007) On the other hand, micro-media seems to be gaining advantage under the radar and the growth seems to be going around unnoticed Coonan (2015a). Therefore, there is no argument that the growth of micro-media is encouraging many investors from different industries to invest in the micro-cinema (Fry, 2006). Actually, much of this literature on investing the short film industries shows a number of approaches that have been developing in the last few years (Coonan, 2015a; Fry, 2006). For instance, Coonan (2015a) acknowledges the fact that with globalization, the Chinese online video market is one of the most ripe video market in the world. According to Coonan (2015a), the Chinese netizens have grown up to 649 million in total in the last few months.
On the other hand, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) report that the growing reputations of the financial advantage that has been seen in the online video sharing platforms clearly encourage investment of any particular form. Differently, Coonan (2015a) sees the investment procedures seen in the current market as a way of gaining competitive advantage over rivals. Although the authors point out different reasons for taking part in the business investment, one limitation of these views is that the authors do not show how the investment programs are attained in the micro-media industry. Despite this concern, it is reasonable to look further into O’Melvery & Myers (2015)’s literature material. According to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), investing in micro-cinema has come to play in the recent past due to the rising challenges such as legal frameworks that are set in different countries. As an illustration, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) point out that in China, Youtube is banned together with other search engines such as google. On the other hand Coonan (2015a) points out that legal battle is not the only reason, but also part of the reason for investment. The writer, says in the Hollywood reporter magazine, that to gain a market advantage is another reason for the continued investment. So, how is investment happening in these online video and micro-media platforms?
A solution to this can be found in the online magazine ‘hollywood reporter’ presented by Coonan (2015b), showing that investment has been through cooperative mergers, partnerships and buy-outs. For instance, according to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), iQiY1 just recently inked a very lucrative deal with the smartphone company ‘Xiaomi’ to buy television shows. Actually, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) found out that the online platform invested a whooping 300 million dollar deal with the company as the television shows would now be viewed by customers who owned the smartphone. Quite differently, Coonan (2015a) reports that youku tudou, partnering with baidu’s video unit bought out iQiY1. However, Coonan (2015a)’s report seems purely reliant on rumours while looking at the presentation by O’Melvery & Myers (2015) on the investment made by iQiY1. Actually, the writer agrees with this concerns that how can such a big company, with large amounts of money to invest is bought out. Coonan (2015a)’s report seem rather naïve while addressing the buyout programs. Nonetheless, the author agrees that the researcher has brought out the investment by partnering and buyouts.
Moreover, as presented by O’Melvery & Myers (2015), mergers have also been seen to be employed by investors. While acknowledging the growth of the Chinese netizens, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) pointed ou that other companies are now entering into mergers and buying shares in the video sharing online platforms. A good example is that presented by Coonan (2015a) on youku and tuduo merger in 2011 and the recent merger between youku tudou and baidu’s online unit. The authors seem to agree that with mergers, the companies have continued to gain an economic advantage over the rivals in great amounts (Coonan, 2015a; O’Melvery & Myers (2015). However, Coonan (2015) criticized this merger as a way that made the company to have a failure in its profits by registering very large amounts of losses. One limitation that comes from these critique is that the procedures involved in investing need to be looked into with precision.
Actually, by partnering with other businesses, companies such as Alibaba have purchased contents in platforms such as youku and therefore invested in these companies (Coonan, 2015a).
Such presentations present the level of investment that has been taken when looking at the micro-media industry. Many investors are evidently taking advantage of the growth in these media platforms.
2.4. Impacts of Micro-cinema: The contribution of microcinema to civilization
The literature on the contribution of the cinema industry has been on the procedures employed in the creation and delivery of information using videos (Massoulie et al., 2007). However, focus of recent research has continually addressed the overall contribution of the media fratanity to the overall performance of the businesses (Massoulie et al., 2007). This however, does not address the major impacts of the micro-cinema on the success of the world. Nonetheless, to solve this issue, many researchers such as Barjak (2005), Alejandro (2010) , Hao (2014) and Jamieson (2010) have proposed various contributions that come with the use of the micro-cinema systems by the business practitioners. For instance, Hao (2014) did a study to find ot the Chinese success stories and found out that one evidence of the success has been on the number of internet users in the Chinese markets. In the article presented by Hao (2014), by june of 2013, the world had seen 591 million users of the user generated media and China alone had 389 million, presenting a whooping 68.8% of the increase in China alone. This points out the fact that while china has had a social stratification in the past in terms of culture and influence of communication systems, there is a breathtaking rise in the development of the information and communication technology. Actually, this author, points out that many users such as the activists, bloggers and researchers are able to reach a large audience and this shows that the influence has not only on entertainment, but also on the delivery and consumption of information (Hao, 2014).
According to the literature presented by Alejandro (2010) and Jamieson (2010), it is evident that with the use of micromedia systems such as youku and vimeo, there has been a growth on the revolutionalized world. Specifically, Alejandro (2010) points out that with this kind of media systems, the creation of videos for marketing has seen the competition grow in business environments. Alejandro (2010) presented that with the use of micro-media networks, videos on different products by different companies have been advertised in the online platforms, and has been shared for over one million times. These views by Alejandro (2010) seem to agree with the presentation Jaimeson (2010) and Barjak (2005) who agree on the increased competition in the business industry which is attributed to the use of online video websites.
In the meantime, looking at Hao (2014)’s findings, the commercial gain of using these systems of online video websites has not only improved the public relations, but has seen relationship marketing advance. To point out, the author acknowledges that through the micro-media, the marketing of products and services has grown as the ordinary netizens are able to gather information and pass their views to business entities (Hao, 2014). This suggests the significance of these online video sharing websites on creating one facet of communication (Pikas, 2006).
However, one question that comes to mind is how these business organizations have addressed the competition that comes with improved and worldly changes. The concern could also be pointed out in the presentation by Hao (2014), who clearly shows that businesspersons are using these micro-cinemas to pass antisocial values to compete with other competitors. For instance, one can find an advertisement that presents the negative parts of a product or service offered by other businesses. This suggests that such marketing strategies have proved to increase the flourishing competition in the business world. Nonetheless, O’Melvery & Myers (2015)’s, Franz (2013)’s and Coonan (2015a)’s literature seem to answer these concern. According to Franz (2013)’s and Coonan (2015a), with competition evident, internet video sites are now taking a role in creating partnership programs with major corporate companies. Franz (2013)’s and Coonan (2015a) presents that with such programs, many businesses are now able to have an advantage over their competitors. One example is presented by O’Melvery & Myers (2015) on the methods employed by the internet video site, tv.solu in 2012. According to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), the show ‘Zhong guo hao sheng yin’ was one popular program that made the Chinese television company Zhejiang TV acquire more customers from the viewers that followed this program. According to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), Zhejiang TV formed an alliance with the internet video site tv.sohu whereby, with the related programs designed in the online platform, the ratings grew within four months. In particular, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) pointed out that over 200, 000 internet users visited this sites. At the end of the day, the author posits that the increased visits show that many viewers presented an increase in viewership and hence Zhejiang TV company improved in profitability (O’Melvery & Myers, 2015). This suggests that with collaborations and partnership programs, businesses have gone ahead to create a competitive advantage over other players in online internet video programming (O’Melvery & Myers, 2015).
On the other hand, Jamieson (2010) and Franz (2013) argue that the new media technologies are likely to elicit change in the contents designed in the micro-media. According to Jamieson (2010), by using the micro-media technologies, the methods of communicating for the businesspersons with their clients have seen an improvement. For instance, various businesspersons have continued to advertise their products using the micro-cinema that are uploaded on these sites. In this case, a company can create a video that pops up when individuals visit these sites or the pages. However, the authors posit that these popups might be irritating to users and this has seen the development of blocking systems for these popups. Actually, the problem that comes with these is that there is alienation of people. These are areas that need further addressing.
Furthermore, Jamieson (2010)’s reports acknowledge the fact that with civilization, there has been evidence of increased need for proper business performance and that many of these businesses need to have truthfulness and honesty. Actually, Jamieson (2010) presented that with the use of micro-media systems, there has been a significant difficulty of business marketing structures that are ethical. To demonstrate this, with the levels of change happening in the world, governments have gone further to develop several regulations that have seen many businesses have a hard time getting to perform many financial operations with ease. With this in mind, many businesses have gone ahead to fall out due to failures in methods of presenting business financial reports with great accountability. Actually, with these failures, many businesspersons have gone ahead to create schewed business advertisements that have created bad competition. With such failures, businesses that are unregistered have been seen develeoping marketing videos on the platforms such as youku, vimeo and tudou. Franz (2013) agrees with these views on the negative impact that such regulatory systems have continued to have on business platforms. According to Franz (2013), the shift from main stream media platforms such as use of television and movies have been countered in the Chinese market. Franz (2013) pointed out that it has been a problem for individuals to pass information as they need scrutiny by the Chinese government. Coonan (2015a) pointed out that with poor systems of addressing the regulatory contents, YouKu Tuduo recorded very significant failures in profits in 2014 when compared to the previous years. In fact, Coonan (2015a) found out that the company made very big losses due to poor mechanisms that were employed to tackle the regulations set on the online systems. Coonan (2015a) said that the company reported losses of up to $143 million in 2014 when compared to a loss of $93 million the previous year. The author posits that while the company has been in collaboration with the Alibaba company, regulatory bodies seem to present a problem on the impacts that the online video sites have had on businesses. Therefore, one can agree with Coonan (2015a) that while there has been an impact on the profitability of the businesses based on the visits made by viewers, the media platforms face significant problems that might be attributed to the tightened regulatory systems in these online video sites. Such a presentation by Coonan (2015a) clearly presents the major failures of the companies that are evident with the online media platforms. Having considered this failure, Coonan (2015a) says that it is reasonable to look at the procedures employed in passing the videos to the viewers. Based on the reports presented by Cong (2013) and De Ville (2014), with the continued use of these media platforms, businesses have gone further to acquire many customers. In this case, Cong (2013) and De Ville (2014) acknowledge that with increased procedures that allow increased sharing of videos, many customers have been able to see what products are available in different markets and what businesses sell these products. For instance, through having an online sharing natured system, Cong (2013) posits that videos on what products are offered are autonomously shared in the online video system, youku. However, while such advantages have been noted, one challenge faced by these sites is the problems of video-traffic (Pikas, 2006). There is a very big increase in the number of the users in these sites, creating a problem with uploading and downloading speeds (Pikas, 2006). People find it hard to upload videos and watch them on the other hand as the number of users has increased with few websites improving their bandwidth (Hao, 2014). This point is also agreed upon by the work of Barjak (2005) on the problems that come with traffic. The empirical studies by Barjak (2005) acknowledge that video-traffic is growing as the numbers of internet users has grown from 15% to over 25% in the last decade. Meanwhile, many broadcasters have changed tact and shifted to the less restricted internet video sites. Actually, Barjak (2005) posits that with the use proper management systems, the restrictions on the use of the platforms is generally addressed in this perspective.
In the meantime, according to Leary (2009) and Pikas (2006), there is evident identification of the improved performance in the casual communication and presentation of diverse cultures through the use of television mini-shows and reviews. According to Leary (2009), journalists have hade to come to terms with different cultures, but have not had a platform to let every one know. Pikas (2006) agrees that with an improved ICT system, materials created by journalists are now available online in the platforms and are polished in a desirable manner to gain larger audiences. The advantage of the journalists investing their jobs in these systems is that the materials can be archived and even be retrieved very fast by online users who include the students and customers in different countries. The advantage in this case is that with journalists and television stations investing in these sites, many groups have been able to get the desired information they really wanted. More so, the cohorts have been allowed to engage in group discussions (Leary, 2009; Pikas, 2006). In another consideration of these presentation, the authors can agree that with professional bloggers and journalists in the systems, business partners have been able to send each other messages on products, improvement and procedures to use while identifying potential markets (Pikas, 2006).
In addition to this, Hao (2014) added that many other areas have seen the mordernization of communication such as using these systems to criticize the government by humanitarian persons and development of knowledge for researchers and students.
In conclusion, the literature presented in this chapter has evidently addressed several areas of the study that were presented in the research objectives developed for the study. The literature clearly presents the major platforms that are involved with online video sharing. For instance web sites such as youtube, youku, vimeo, tudou, iQiY1, tv.comand v.qq.com are addressed in this presentations. While these platforms have been addressed, it is evident from the literature material that the procedures of using the platforms are determined by several material such as bandwidth programs and other systems that allow sharing, uploading and downloading of video content. As a matter of fact, the majority of these platforms need video plugins to be installed to ensure that the content in the videos is seen by the viewers.
Moreover, these literature has suggested the investment systems employed when looking at the companies involved in partnership, mergers and even buyouts. These has been an advantage to the business fraternity as many are now able to perform on advantages that come with sharing of markets. However, the literature suggests different challenges that range from the legal systems of regulation to cyber bullying. Nevertheless, the main research objectives of this study have been addressed in significant fashion in this paper.
Chapter 3 Research methods (1500 words)-
Chapter 4 Introduction
This chapter presents the research methodology designed when capturing the data that was analyzed for this study (Saunders et al., 2007). In this case, the researcher addresses the methodology designed to address the role of micro-cinema in China, especially during this era of multimedia. The research methods addressed in this chapter sought to present the procedures designed to collect data concerning the research objectives (Saunders et al., 2007). For instance, the methods presented would examine the major video hosting websites used for micro-cinema in the multimedia era. Moreover, the methods presented enabled the researcher to investigate who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas and the main viewers of such contents uploaded in micro-media platforms. Furthermore, the methods designed investigated who are the investors of these short films in micro-media. Finally, the methods would uncover the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress modern societies.
3.1 Research purpose
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the micro-media in the business marketing systems and the use in the multimedia systems. This study specifically addressed the use of micro-media systems by different businesspersons to advertise and market of services products to potential customers. This actually addresses the use of these systems in the modern society where the use of mobile phones, smartphones and internet media has increased in the last decade.
3.2 The research approach adopted
The researcher adopted a qualitative research approach to perform the study. This approach enabled the researcher to collect data and perform an in-depth analysis of the findings made from the study (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). The use of a qualitative research approach ensured that the findings were all inclusive and that the researcher performed an inductive research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). With such an approach, data was collected based on the constructivist paradigm that allows a comprehensive understanding of the views collected from the responses provided from the research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). More so, the approach adopted ensured that with other researches, the findings made would be analyzed to develop the implications and recommendations based on an inductive discussion of the findings (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007).
3.3 Research methods used
The researcher performed the study using primary research. This allowed the researcher to collect firsthand information for the dissertation (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). Specifically, the researcher developed semi-structured interviews for the study. These types of interviews would allow an intensive investigation while gaining a complete and detailed understanding of the topic (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). The interviews developed had a total of 10 questions, with open-ended questions. These interviews were then administered using a face-to-face method. The open-ended questions designed in the interviews would encourage the respondents present their feelings and perceptions on the questions asked while doing these discussions with the respondent involved selected for the study (Saunders et al., 2007). Actually, the questions in the semi-structured interviews were presented by the researcher, which allowed the respondents to provide information that was open and interactive (Saunders et al., 2007). This allowed the researcher and the respondents to make conversation that was very open on the way the respondents behaved and answered each question. Therefore, with the face to face interviews, the conversations with these informants enabled the researcher to present information that would include the behaviours and feelings for each reasons (Saunders et al., 2007). In addition to this, different opinions were aired from these interviews and with these, the researcher was able to get the in-depth information on the research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). To ensure that each response was addressed, the researcher made recordings of each conversations made (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007).
3.4 Sampling method
For this dissertation, the researcher employed the purposive sampling technique to select the sample that would be used for the study. Based on the main purpose of the study as presented in above, the researcher specifically focused on individuals who are generally involved in the internet in various business systems (Saunders et al., 2007). These were the respondents who were generally involved in creation, uploading and downloading materials and especially videos in the online micro-cinema platforms. The target population was all the businesspersons involved in internet advertisement and operations (Saunders et al., 2007). Therefore, true to Saunders et al., (2007)’s literature, the researcher targeted all people who were believed to have the most reliable information on the use of the role of micro-cinema in presentation the internet platforms. In particular, Saunders et al., (2007) posit that the power of purposive sampling lies in the procedures of selecting information rich cases for the in-depth analysis that is related to the central issues under study. The respondents were people who were in different businesses and had shown a special interest in using micro-media systems that would be significant for the study (Saunders et al., 2007). These were individuals who were basically involved in creation and presentation of video material in online systems such as youku, vimeo and tudou platforms.
Therefore, by using a purposive sampling technique, a group of respondents were selected for the interviews. The selected sample enabled the researcher to collect varied information that would address the different business practices that are involved with the micro-cinema production and presentation. With the Chinese netizens increasing in the world, it is evident that almost all individuals in China use the internet. The researcher selected individuals who mostly conducted most of their day to day work via the internet. These people included the bloggers, cyber operators, businesspersons, students, researchers and jornalists. This sample was to represent the population in general and knew much on the use of the internet for various purposes and were constantly connected to the internet. Each of the samples selected for the study were particularly addressed with information that allowed them to understand the main reason for performing the study. In fact, the subjects selected for the study were presented with requests on appointments that would allow the researcher have the face to face conversation with the sample. Therefore, with the purpose of the study clearly presented to the respondents, the researcher ensured that these key informants were willing to talk to the researcher (Saunders et al., 2007).
3.5 Data analysis
As presented in this chapter, the dissertation was performed using a qualitative research approach. With the use of the interviews, the researcher collected a very wide array of responses that presented different attitudes and feelings. Therefore, to perform the analysis, the researcher used a quick impressionist summary. For this study, with a qualitative research in question, data was analyzed by summarizing the key findings, explaining each findings and then performing an interpretation based on the frequency of the responses made on the various issues (Denzine & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007).
3.6 Validity and reliability- triangulation
For validity and reliability, the researcher performed a pilot study that involved a total of 10 respondents. These respondents involved in the study did identify the particular areas of the study that needed to be included in the study and the questions that needed further clarification (Saunders et al., 2007).
3.7 Pilot Study
Piloting was done to enable the researcher get the validity and reliability of the interviews used during the study. A total of 10 respondents were selected for the pilot studies.
3.8 Ethical concerns
According to Saunders et al., (2007), ethical issues are mainly found in a research system when data analysis and presentation is done in an untrue and deceptive procedure. However, to ensure that such issues are solved, the researcher should always maintain integrity (Denzine & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). In order to address the ethical issues for this study, the researcher ensured all the respondents were given information that addressed the main reason of performing the study. More so, the findings and the interpretations were made honestly and objectively. In addition to this, each respondent was assured of their confidentiality while ensuring that no other interests were disclosed during the study.
The researcher anticipated that the respondents would not participate in the study. However, the researcher ensured that all the respondents were informed of the main purpose of the study.
In conclusion, the researcher developed an in-depth research methodology that would ensure the researcher was able to collect data that was very inclusive. In addition to this, the researcher described the main research materials by identifying the main purpose of the study and the exact reason as to why each of the methods were designed. More so, in this case, the researcher developed research methods that were based on the qualitative studies. This allowed the researcher to perform an inductive study by performing interviews for the study.
Chapter 5 Data Findings and Presentation of results (2000 words)-
This chapter presents the research findings made during the study. In addition, the chapter shows the findings made from the study by use of a quick impressionist theory as addressed in the previous chapter (Denzine & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). In this case, to address the main purpose of the study, the findings are designed in tabules based on the research objectives. To point out these objectives, the researcher sought to examine the major video hosting websites used for micro-cinema in the multimedia era. Moreover, the researcher to investigated who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas and the main viewers of such contents uploaded in micro-media platforms. Furthermore, the findings presented in this chapter addressed the objective that sought to investigate who are the investors of these short films in micro-media. Finally, the findings made uncovered the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization besides addressing some of the procedures that would be significant in developing these systems in the Chinese industry (Denzine & Lincoln, 2008; Saunders et al., 2007). In this case, the data collected from the interviews with the respondents involved in the studies sought to address the research objectives designed for the study (Saunders et al., 2007). The questions designed for the interviews were developed in form of semi-structured interviews to allow the participants to have an open answer on the different questions addressing the research questions.
4.2 Presentation of the results
For this study, the results obtained were identified and presented from the responses made from the interviews with the sample selected from the study. These results were then presented by basing the responses made in view of the research objectives as addressed above (Saunders et al., 2007).
4.2.1. To examine the major video hosting websites used for mico-cinema in the multimedia era.
In order to address the objective above (in 4.2.1. above), the researcher specifically asked questions that sought to find out which were the most common video hosting websites that were used for micro-cinems. The researcher asked questions such as identifying and talking about the websites the respondents used in presenting their videos while in China. Also, the views on the online sites that were used for online presentation of videos were shared and these involved the respondents providing examples of the sites they use for these presentations.
Table 1 Responses focusing on the major video hosting websites used
2. Youku Tudou
6. Baidu video site
Table 1 above depicts the responses that show which are the major video hosting websites used in the Chinese market. The table shows the responses that were consistently provided by the participants who were involved in the study. For instance, the researcher noted that majority of the respondents seemed convinced that you ku is the most common website for sharing videos on the interned. On the other hand, other respondents from the interviews responded by showing a consistency in mentioning vimeo and tudou while baidu video site was also mentioned by other respondents. While few mentioned v.qq and iQIY, the consistency of their responses showed that these websites were evidently popular amongst many individuals in China. The data collected from these respondents suggested that there were websites that were much more popular than others when looking at how they addressed the questions in the interviews. For instance, the findings show that most of the respondents seemed to use the tudou and youku websites while others visited v.qq in few instances. On the other hand, the respondents involved in the interviews consistently mentioned that baidu online video sites were commonly used by the respondents. However, not all respondents seem to have suggested the baidu network as it was less popular with regards to presenting online videos when compared to the other online video websites.
4.2.2. To investigate who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas.
Table 2 Responses on film makers of these micro-cinemas
1. Contracted social media experts
2. Independent bloggers
3. The normal Chinese netizens
6. Individual businesspersons
7. Normal mobile phone users
Table 2 above shows the responses that were addressed on the film makers of the micro-cinema industry. This table 2 above addresses the individuals or the companies that have been involved in making the videos. The participants involved in the interviews consistently mentioned the contracted social media experts from various companies in China. They suggested that many companies who did such kind of films were employing individuals in who had expertise in social media and marketing was the main agenda bedides providing information that was important to the public. More so, the data obtained from the responses show that among the film makers involved in the micro-cinema industry are the chinese netizens, who weem to be increasing in numbers each day. The data collected also suggest that researchers can upload their research work on the video websites and present their findings to the researcher. On the other hand, the participants in the interviews consistently mentioned bloggers who are independently involved with different projects who would be involved with the creation of videos of what they made as subjects of discussion to present. The respondents also mentioned the users of mobile phones, who were constantly uploading videos they made from the occurrences that happen in their day-to-day lives. The findings show that most of the respondents involved in the interviews acknowledge that online video sharing websites have been used by many individuals to present different information. For instance, the students and researchers can use these online video sharing sites to pass information on what they had worked or were working on. The findings made from the presentations with the respondents show that businesspersons were also using these sites for other business related activities such as marketing new products and showing the respondents how these products and services were used. Mobile phone users would then upload any form of videos they had made from live events or occurences.
4.2.3. To investigate the viewers who watch micro-cinemas.
While the film makers of the industry in micro-media were researchers, students, bloggers, businesspersons and the chinese netizens, there was need to find out who were the viewers of these videos that were uploaded. The consistency of the findings suggested that most of these responses were made by most of the participants and are presented in the table 2 below.
Table 3 Responses on who are the viewers of the video contents in the online video websites
1. The Chinese netizens
5. Potential customers
In order to determine the viewers of the video content that is made by the film makers, the researcher asked who the respondents thought viewed these content that were posted in the online neworks. In this case, majority of the interviewees mentioned the chinese netizens as the common viewers of the contents that were uploaded. On the other hand, many respondents also mentioned the students in the industry as those individuals who seemed to view these content that was uploaded on the video websites. The respondents suggested that the students soght to find out various researches and tried to address various assignments on these sites. More so, the respondents involved in the interviews consistently suggested that internet bloggers commonly used the video websites to check what other internet bloggers have done on different subjects. The respondents also consistently suggested that potential customers would look for videos that addressed the needs on the products that they wanted to buy or use in different areas.
4.2.4. To find out the who are the investors of these short films in micro-media.
Table 4 Responses that showed the investors of the film industry
1. Local television companies
2. The Chinese government
3. Independent companies e.g. Alibaba group
4. The online video sharing companies themselves
5. Individual businesspersons
6. Research companies
The researcher also sought to find out who are the main investors of these film making online web sites. The responses made from the interviewees included the local television companies who most respondents suggested that they were involved in presenting programs online to various viewers. The data obtained consistently show that the respondents involved in the interviews were suggesting the independent companies were seen investing in the video websites. Increasingly, the researcher noted that majority of the respondents involved in the study consistently suggested the businesspersons as some of the netizens who showed an interest in viewing on the preferences products that were preferred by the customers and uploaded these videos to the potential customers. Moreover, the researchers, through the research companies, did invest in these video websites and use them to pass messages to the world on current occurences in the world. Other companies such as video sharing companies did invest in each other by patnering with each other. Such responses are addressed in the table 4, depicted above. The data collected suggests that while the online platforms were growing, different investors were recognizing the impact of these sites and therefore the need to invest in these online websites that allowed individuals to upload and watch videos.
4.2.5. To determine the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization.
Table 5 Responses on the contribution of micro-cinema
1. Marketing has become digitalized
2. Mobile phone makers have enhanced their products to allow the use of these micro-media such as the smartphone companies created smartphones with video players, camera and improved internet accessibility
3. Internet providers increased their bandwidth to increase investors
4. Research materials and videos can now be distributed to many viewers
5. Social media platforms have allowed the videos to be uploaded and distributed between users
6. The micro-media platforms have been used in business advertisement
7. Schools are now using the platforms to pass valuable information
8. Customers can create and develop the kind of products and services they want and upload them in these sites with an aim of finding them
9. Customers can air their satisfaction using videos
10. Communication improved
To address this objective, questions were asked to the respondents seeking to find out what they thought of the industry and impacts on businesses and how they thought on the future prospects of the industry. The responses made from the interviews showed that there is a significant impact on different levels in China.
Micro-cinema seems to have contributed to the world in various ways as suggested by the participants in the interviews. These responses are presented in the table 6 presented aboce. The researcher sought to find out how the use of micro-cinema has contributed in the market in various ways. The researcher noted that majority of the respondents involved in the interviews consistently suggested that the marketing of products and services has been digitalized with the introduction of these video websites. This,according to the respondents seem to allow an increased number of investors and customers who were involved in various systems and different businesses. On the other hand, the researcher also noted many respondents suggested the gains in the mobile phone industry. The data obtained suggest that majority of the respondents pointed out that the mobile phone companies and the smartphone makers had began to manufacture and produce products that were enhanced with apps that allowed the use of micro-media such as the video players, cameras and improved internet systems. Increasingly, the researcher found out that many responses from the interviews also pointed out the investment in these video website companies has contributed to improved bandwidth in the internet, allowing the improved communication in the market. Moreover, most participants suggested that the improvement in the internet had contributed to the increase in the number of social media platforms from where the advertisement of products and services had improved in the last few years. The research interviews also presented the consistent responses that suggested students were also getting information, valuable for their education without much problems while the data shows that customers seemed to get much satisfaction from the products they bought or acquired by getting information on how to maintain and use in the video websites. Such responses from the interviews show that the use micro-media in the internet has contributed much in the communication as most of the material can be passed between individuals with less effort.
In conclusion, the data collected found out that the Chinese industry is evolving, with many websites forming such as yuoku and tudou, vimeo, v.qq.com amongst others. More so, the findings show that the main users of these internet sites were students, businesspersons, journalists and researchers. The findings made show that while most of the respondents suggested the sites youku and tudou in large numbers, other users did most of their work in vimeo, v.qq and baidu, besides using baidu online video sharing platforms. The individuals who use these sites, as most of the responses from the interviews show, were uploading and viewing material they were interested in while also airing different views on different topics such as the bloggers. Students would use these sites to find answered questions on different assignments and help in using in classwork. With the improved systems, the data collected show that television companies, business individuals research companies and the online companies have invested in these video sharing platforms. In addition to this, the study findings show that the micro-media platforms have improved the communication between individuals, with businesses going further to make the platforms a significant tool for marketing while looking to have a competitive advantage. Besides communication, the introduction of products that allowed development and uploading of videos such as mobile phones had been started by these companies involved. Valuable information was easily passed between individuals and these would be distributed to the satisfaction of the users. The main implication from the use of micro-cinema was that it had improved the communication systems as presented in this chapter. The results on the objective seeking to address the impacts of the video sharing sites suggest that communication from different users such as businesspersons, customers, students, researchers and bloggers was passed between individuals and this suggested improved communication.
Data Analysis and Discussion (3500 words) completed
This chapter chapter presents a comprehensive analysis of the research findings presented in the previous chapter. This involves the discussion of the findings made from the interviews performed on concerning the study. In this chapter, the researcher sought to address the main role of the micro-cinema in the era of the multimedia in the Chinese market. Therefore, this chapter presents a modest contribution of the ongoing discussion on the major video hosting websites used for micro-cinema in the multimedia era. In addition to this, the focus of attention was on the film makers who make micro-cinemas and the main viewers of such contents uploaded in micro-media platforms. Furthermore, the researcher addressed the investors of these short films in micro-media. Further, much concentration was also given to the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization.
Based on the presentation in chapter one above, it was evident that the media industry has significantly changed with communication systems developing while the traditional methods are on the blink of extinction. The use of communication methods in the era of multimedia has particularly seen the development of social media platforms. However, with these development, it is evident that such social media platforms and the internet has affected the overall development of the short film and the film industry as a whole.
While this development has been evidently presented by different researchers, it is clear from the researcher’s views that the art of writing, passing of photos and pictures has seen the development of the film industry. More so, the film systems have had a unique advantage in improving the methods of communication. With this in mind, it was significant for the researcher to understand the application of the micromedia in the era of the multimedia industry. Increasingly, with over 500 million Chinese netizens and about 375 million of these netizens viewing these video sites on a daily basis, many companies have been developing to provide these advantages of video presentation. In this case, the researcher sought to address the various views by different authors and perform a survey on these systems. This sought to address the business models in the micro-media industry with an aim of identifying and getting the potential market.
Furthermore, with a look at these issues, the researcher performed a qualitative study to address the issues that were raised in this dissertation. In this case, the researcher investigated these systems by performing interviews to find out the different views by the main respondents. From these interviews, the researcher found out a number of sites that are used in the micro-media industry such as iQIY1, Youku, youku tudou, vimeo, v.qq.com and baidu online systems as the main systems. This suggested that the business models would address the investors and the main users of these media platforms. With such findings, the researcher has performed a comprehensive analysis of these findings and provided a comprehensive discussion of the findings and this is addressed in this chapter.
5.3. Discussion of the specific objectives
To begin with, the researcher’s attention was particularly concentrated on the major video hosting websites used for mico-cinema in the multimedia era. The findings made from this study found out that there are several internet systems that are used in the Chinese market. The results obtained in the surveys showed that these platforms include the youku, youku tudou, vimeo, tv.suhu, baidu and tuduo. The responses made from these findings showed that there were more websites that had offered the video industry a chance to communicate with the use of short films. For instance, a respondent was heard saying ‘…well I know of the main companies such as youku, but also I have been using the baidu network to load my videos.’ Increasingly the researcher heard another respondent saying, ‘I cannot tell you much on the many websites, but I have seen a fewwhen I visit the internet. I get most of my research from tv.suhu since I work in the television industry. I have also used two other sites such as v.qq.com and tudou from where I have been looking at various lectures.’ A respondent said, ‘…you know when I collect the videos on youku and tudou, I have been able to see and find out the main businesses such as the shoe companies and the mobile companies in the online site, tudou and vimeo..’ Comparing these findings to the literature presented by Coonan (2015b), there has been a significant growth in the industry with platforms such as vimeo, Tuduo and Youku which have seen advancement in the Chinese market, hence attracting various studies on the micro-media (Coonan, 2015b). Moreover, the findings are broadly consistent with the presentation by Crampton (2011) who posits that the world has witnessed the emergence of User Generated Content (UGC) video systems such as Youtube, Youku and Tudou. The most likely failure in this findings is that they do not show the procedures on how they are used when uploading and viewing the contents in video. However, contrarily, when looking at the presentation by Parvez, Williamson, Mahanti & Carlsson (2008), it is evident that the authors presented that with improved technology, microcinema has seen many people reframe video content by using the technologies such as mobile phones and other laptops. Parvez et al., (2008) point out that such digital frameworks are the main platforms that are now used for the presentation of the video content. Such frameworks allow a small size of the videos and hence Parvez et al., (2008) suggested such frameworks have seen the advancement of the microcinema in the video industry. The implication that these analysis presents is that there is need for speed and power for the systems of the internet to allow multiple users to use the technology of sharing videos.
Nonetheless, Huang et al., (2007) reckon that the use of such medium is evident in the current industry, but they say that these are only the medium and not the media itself. Actually, while the interepretation by Huang et al., (2007) seems to agree that there has been an advancement in the cinema industry, the difference is that micro-media is evidently seen in platforms such as the youtube, vimeo, tuduo youku. On the other hand, it is evident that Wei (2007) says that with an exponential rise in technology, specialists have developed peer-assisted UGC systems that allow individuals to upload and download videos in certain bandwidths. Lamb & Davidson (2005) similary say that platforms such as vimeo need to have peer-assisted UGC systems that allow users to optionally present their video material.
Contrary to these views, Shaofang (2007) says that for proper download and upload of contents, these systems need to have plug ins to collect a large amount of cache. Generally, despite the varied views on the internet platform, the authors seem to agree that there has been a rise in the video sharing websites in China. The findings tend to agree with the literature that there are a number of sites such as vimeo, youku and tudou amongst others.
Moreover, the researcher sought to investigate who are the film makers who make micro-cinemas. From the interviews made during the study, the researcher found out that film makers include the internet bloggers, the researchers and businesspersons. In addition to this, it is evident from the study that among these film makers were the individuals who were majorly the Chinese netizens who also were students and persons involved in making business and personal actions. True to this, the literature presented by Tsukayama (2013) points out that the main users of these sites has actually grown to over 770, 000 million users by the end of 2013. One respondent said, ‘..i have seen very many business advertisements from new businessmen and women and companies share videos of their products. Just yesterday, I noticed a number of researchers post videos of their researches on how to use a computer safely and I got concerned on it.’ In agreement, Sulivan (2013) says that these sites have been used by television producers, film makers and other corporate organizations mainly to advertise and pass information to the audience. For instance, the television corporations have had to train their journals so as to get a level playing field as the growth of these online video sharing platforms are increasing the level of competition (Pikas, 2006). This shows that the journalists, business television companies and researchers are using the systems for the advertisement and passing information. More so, another said, ‘..alright! I can tell that many videos I have seen have the blogging site and business websites put in the video……..’ Another said, ‘…I cant deny that as a constant user of youku tudou, I independently share very enticing videos I get from my smartphone and I upload directly to this site.’ In addition to this, another respondent was heard saying, ‘You see, when I wanted to sell my car, I took a ten-minute video showing all the parts of my vehicle from the exterior to the interior and uploaded the video to vimeo. Supprisingly, with my phone number added, I got a few calls and I have sold my car to the buyer just few hours ago.’ While comparing these results to the literature by Elliot (2006), it is evident that the author says that such video contents published might generally be original videos from bloggers and original content from television clips and other videos shot by cellphone users. On the other hand, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) point out that users include registered and unregistered users. Actually, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) say that registered users are permitted to upload unlimited numbers of videos using the operating system- based upload tools. However, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009)’s literature has only suggested the users to be registered and the unregistered individuals.
While the literature and the findings seem to agree, the main implication is that the interview results have gone further and found out that there are researchers who use these platforms while businesspersons also advertise their products in these online platforms.
In addition to this, it is evident that the researcher investigated who the viewers who watch micro-cinemas. From the study, the researcher found out that many of the viewers were the netizens who constantly visited these sites frequently. Moreover, the researcher found out that the viewers of certain programs visited these websites to see the episodes that were not in the digital networks. Specifically, one respondent was heard saying, ‘I have visited tudou to watch funny clips on the pranks shows that entice me on the television. Sometimes when at work I tend to miss the news and I have been visiting tv.suhu to watch these news as they occurred.’ With such responses it is evident that Alejandro (2010) agrees there are a number of users who are viewers and film makers. He presents that with such number of users, tuduo has grown in the net ratings to over 40 million visitors in tuduo per minute. Actually, tuduo has grown to over 50% coverage of the video market in China alone. On the other hand, the literature presented by Elliot (2006) shows that with over 50,000 videos the company has allowed such numbers to be published daily. More so, looking further into the discussions made by Elliot (2006), one notes that Elliot (2006) has presented the users of these online video presentations and sharing micro-media platforms. For instance, Elliot (2006) says that such video contents published might generally be original videos from bloggers and original content from television clips and other videos shot by cellphone users.In contrast to the findings, some of the literature reports such as those by Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) point out that users include registered and unregistered users. Actually, Arceneaux & Nickerson (2009) say that registered users are permitted to upload unlimited numbers of videos using the operating system- based upload tools. This suggests otherwise, that the viewers are mainly registered individuals which seems unsatisfying. Generally, the findings are surprisingly suggesting the number of users to include the potential customers, the students, bloggers and even the researchers, all of whom seem to be connected online to share and find new material that they require.
Additionally, in order to find out the different business models involved in the online video sharing networks, the researcher considered to find out the who investors of these short films in micro-media included. For this objective, the researcher found out that many of the responses were pointed towards the television programs, suggesting that the investors were television companies. On the other hand, the findings made from the study showed that other independent companies such as mobile phone companies were investors while other investors included the individuals and the government. In fact, one respondent said, ‘…I think the government is one major contributor to this websites…..’ Another respondent said, ‘…Ofcourse these websites are attracting investors who are the billionaires and the companies who are listed in the stock exchange.’ Another was heard saiying, ‘…..i have to tell you that one area that has such a need to invest in this companies is the business companies and the television companies. I am sure that I have seen several companies like CCTV advertise on their shows that their programs are now available on youku tudou..i guess this is one major investor. A respondent said, ‘….we have been noting when blogging that most of our work is directed to other links such as those in other online video sharing companies. I have seen that when I used youku, I also saw the same on tudou and the phone that I use says that this company is a subsidiary of the tudou platform. I really think th networks are their own competitors and they invest in each other. These results concur with other studies which have shown that there are several strategies that have been involved when companies are making investments in these platforms. Coonan (2015b)’s work seems to be showing that investment has been through cooperative mergers, partnerships and buy-outs. Similarly, according to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), iQiY1 just recently inked a very lucrative deal with the smartphone company ‘Xiaomi’ to buy television shows. Actually, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) found out that the online platform invested a whooping 300 million dollar deal with the company as the television shows would now be viewed by customers who owned the smartphone. This suggests that partnership business models are now growing with the increased number of investors. Others like the presentation by Coonan (2015a) reports that youku tudou, partnering with baidu’s video unit bought out iQiY1. So far, the significance of these business models is not clear from the findings. However, when looking in the major trends presented by these authors, one can acknowledge that the main procedures is that these companies are in these businesses to make profit while attracting larger markets. In addition to this, O’Melvery & Myers (2015) pointed out that other companies are now entering into mergers and buying shares in the video sharing online platforms.Other reports have shown that the main aim is to get to address the problems that come with regulatory bodies. The limitation of these results is that they do not comprehensively show how the models have been strategized and their potential influences. Nevertheless, the findings and the literature material seem to have addressed the main business models that have been used by the investors when the online micro-media sites are brought to book.
While the responses addressed the main investors, the researcher also found out that different models of business were involved when dealing with the web based companies. For instance, the researcher found out that there were partnership programs and buyouts. More so, the findings showed the investments being those such as acquisition and mergers to gain a competitive edge. With regards to this, one respondent said, ‘….i don’t know what happens, but I think some are creating a partnership like that of youku and tudou while others are merging.. I really cant tell the idea here but I know this creates an advantage for this companies. These findings obtained are generally consistent with other literature material presenting the idea of the investors having an aim of improving communication and getting to capture the different cohorts with their products (Pikas, 2006). O’Melvery & Myers (2015) illustrates the television companies as one of the potential investors. The authors present that the show ‘Zhong guo hao sheng yin’ was one popular program that made the Chinese television company Zhejiang TV acquiring more customers from the viewers that followed this program. From this example, it is evident that the television company created the competition-based program but took in fewer profits from the poor ratings. According to O’Melvery & Myers (2015), with these concerns, Zhejiang TV formed an alliance with the internet video site tv.sohu whereby with the related programs designed in the online platform, the ratings grew within four months. However, while the literature suggests the television networks as a company that invests, the significance is that there has been more than one investor. For instance the findings show the individuals and other researchers doing a level of investment. Generally, the objective remains incompletely addressed in this case.
Finally, in order to find out the influence of these micro-cinema in the era of multimedia, the researcher focused on the contribution of micro-cinema to the progress of civilization. Concerning this objective, the findings made from the study indicated that the procedures of communication had significantly improved and accessibility to content had been made easier. More so, the findings showed that the with short films, bullying had grown as many found out that one can upload a disturbing message online without any consequences. To point out some of the responses from several respondents, such as respondent 2,7, 4 and 8 said;
‘…… I know that I can now pass a message on my products easily using the video that I upload on my products and this has gotten me many customers.’
‘…I cannot find the best videos on this site, but I think there is online bullying and that improved communication was evident……’
‘ I have the best way to pass my videos to my friends…’
‘…marketing for our company has enabled us to grow into new and much more potential customers are getting to have our products from the advertisements we post on youku and vimeo.’
These results agree with the literature reports by Jamieson (2010) that shows that by using the micro-media technologies, the methods of communicating for the businesspersons with their clients have seen an improvement. For instance, various businesspersons have continued to advertise their products using the micro-cinema that are uploaded on these sites. In this case, a company can create a video that pops up that occur when individuals visit these sites or the pages. More so, Leary (2009) and Pikas (2006) presented that it is evident identification of the improved performance in the casual communication and presentation of diverse cultures through the use of television mini-shows and reviews.
The main limitation that is identified in this case is the competition and regulatory frameworks designed in the online platforms. It is quite evident that a number of regulations fail to address issues of cyber bullying and bad competitive techniques employed by individuals online.
In conclusion, the analysis has addressed the main objectives of the study through the discussions made with reference to the literature material provided. The discussion addressed the fact that there have been an improvement in communication with the increased numbers of platforms. For instance, businesses are able to advertise their products to larger markets while they tend to communicate with the different cohorts in the world. Additionally, with models such as partnership, mergers, acquisition and even buyouts, the investment in the online video sharing platforms is growing significantly. However, from the analysis made, the regulatory systems have not done much to address issues of bullying and bad methods of communication.
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations (1000 words)-
Chapter 8 Introduction
This chapter presents the conclusions made concerning the study. The chapter presents the major conclusions from the analyzed results and also presents a number of implications from the study. More so, this chapter presents the different areas of the study that need further addressing and therefore, recommending further studies and improved researches. In this case, the chapter seeks to address whether the research objectives were addressed by providing a conclusion of the research questions that were answered during the study. Actually, it is evident that micro-media is an independent tool through which businesses can do marketing and improve their competitive advantage.
From the research that has been carried out, it is possible to conclude that the role of micro-cinema in the era of multimedia has specifically been improving and creating easiers methods of communication. This paper clearly shows that a number of platforms have been used in china, especially with the increased number of online netizens increasing.
Concerning the research question, ‘What is the role of the micro-cinemas to business’, it is evident that communication is the overall role. To business platforms, the micro-cinemas have been used to create and present video components for marketing and other use in the business industry. The platforms have provided a scale for improving the competitive advantage for these businesses. Alejandro (2010) and Jaimeson (2010) agree that the main area that has improved has been the revolution of communication through the use of videos in these platforms. Customers are now able to air their views while businesspersons are able to attract a larger market using these tools of communication.
On the other hand, looking at the question ‘What business models work best with the use of micro-cinemas’ , the researcher found out that there are several models used by investors. For instance, the findings from the interviews done during the study show that investors have been able to form partnering programs, buyouts and even engaged in mergers. Using these procedures suggest that businesspersons have recognized the profitability of these micro-cinema industry and have gone ahead to invest in various ways. However, summing up the results, there is no clear procedure on the best model. Authors such as Coonan (2015a) have shown illustrations where the business models have been employed in the Chinese video sharing platforms. The literature has clearly shown that authenticity in the videos has enabled communication, resulting to mergers such as the Youku Tudou merger. The data collected indicate studies findings would be significant in developing strategies for improved business to employ when developing models of business that will be profitable.
Fnally, regarding the question ‘How has micro-cinema changed the way people engage with each other through sharing of thoughts and interests’ . the study findings from the interviews show that just like the second research question, micro-media platforms have improved communication between individuals. The individual involved in presenting video materials online through these video websites include the bloggers, the researchers, businesspersons, students and the general Chinese netizens. From the outcome of the study, it is evident that companies have gone further to employ social media experts while television platforms have even been involved with mergers and collaborations to meet a large market. The findings show that the individuals and companies who invest in these communication industry have used the micro-cinema websites to pass information. The information could be used by customers, researcher and other interested parties to find out new material on products, services or even information that could be vital for students. For instance, the literature material presented by Leary (2009) and Pikas (2006) show that communication has been the facet of these systems, especially with the platforms crating an advantage that is the increased audiences found on the internet. More so, communication has enabled researcher and journalists air different material that addressed the homogenious views and allowed different cohorts of groups to engage in group interactions. The findings of this study are quite convincing on the impact of the micro-cinema and thus the researcher can appreciate that the major role played by the industry is enhancing communication.
6.2. Implications of the study
The findings made from this study will have an impact to a number of areas that deal with ICT and communication. The findings made from the study would be of positive impact on the development of procedures that would be significant in addressing the communication between different individuals in the industry. For instance, the findings can be an encouragement to business organizations and individuals to use the platforms in marketing of their products. More so, the findings can be significant in identifying themost productive business models to use when engaging in advertisement and improvement. More so, the online companies can get to address the issues of regulations and cyber bullying by creating strategies and policies that will be implemented instantly. Meanwhile, the findings would be significant for companies to improve methods of getting views on products and services they offer by encouraging customers to air their views on these products and services offered.
Based on the findings, it is evident that a number of questions from the data collected and the discussions made have been of concern. For instance, the issue of the regulatory systems on the content that is uploaded into these sites has been a thorn in the industry. Clearly, further study on such issues are still required to offer solutions on the best procedures to implement in the already growing industry and hence reduce criminal activities. More studies on methods to authenticate online information can be performed to address the problems of attacks and bullying. Further studies on the use of the websites used in the sharing of videos would significantly add to the purpose of this study as they would address impacts on other areas besides the business industry.
Appendix 1: Interview designed for the study
How do you see the use of the online video sharing sites?
Tell me about the sites that you have used in China when performing these online jobs?
How would you say about the micro-cinema industry and the business industry?
Why do you think such an industry is important for the business systems?
Who are the major businesses you think are investing in the micro-media industry?
How are these businesses you mentioned enter or invest in the micro-media industry?
How would say about the users of these online video sharing platforms in China?
Tell me how you think of the impact of micro-media in China.
How do you think about the current and future prospects in the micro-media industry?
Any other thing you would add concerning our discussion?
30-40 sources (Mainly recent sources between 2005 to 2015)
Alejandro., J. (2010). Journalism in the age of social media. Research thesis. Reuters foundation
Arceneaux, K., & Nickerson, D. W. (2009). Who is mobilized to vote? A re‐analysis of 11 field
experiments. American Journal of Political Science, 53(1), 1-16.
Barjak, F. (2005). Research productivity in the internet era (Series A: Discussion Paper DPW
2005-01). Olten, Switzerland: University of Applied Sciences Solothurn Northwest Switzerland. Retrieved April 10, 2006, from http://www.fhso.ch/pdf/publikationen/dp05_01.pdf
Birnholtz, J. P., Finholt, T. A., Horn, D. B., & Bae, S. J. (2005). Grounding needs: Achieving
common ground via lightweight chat in large, distributed, ad-hoc groups. CHI ’05: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Portland, Oregon, USA, 21-30. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1054972.1054976
Crampton, T., (2011, January 1). The Same But Different. The Chinese Business Review.
Retrieved on 9th July 2015from http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/social-media-in-china-the-same-but-different/
Cong, C., A., O. (2013). China’s brain drain. In ZHA. Quing (e.d.). Education in China:
Educational History; Modelling and Initiatives. Berkshire:Berkshire Publishing p.383-390
Coonan, C. ( 2015, March 16a). In the fourth quarter, Youku Tudou reported a net loss of $51.3
million, compared to $4 million in the same quarter of 2013. Hollywood reporter. Retrieved on 7th July, 2015 from > http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/chinas-youku-tudou-reports-bigger-783231
Coonan., C. ( 2015, March 16b). Investing in buyouts and Mergers. Alibaba has a 18% stake at
youku tuduo. Hollywood reporter. Retrieved on 7th July, 2015 from > http://edit.hollywoodreporter.com/news/alibaba-acquire-youku-tudou-stake-699258
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative
research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative
research (3rd ed., pp. 1-32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
De Ville, D. (2014). The Microcinema movement and Montreal. Research thesis. Concordia
Elliot, J., (Ed.), (2006). The debates in the several state conventions on the adoption of the
federal Constitution, as recommended by the general convention at Philadelphia, in
1787, orig. pub. 1840, Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library.
Fry, J. (2006). Scholarly research and information practices: A domain analytic approach.
[Electronic version]. Information Processing & Management, Vol 42(1), 299-316.
Fowler, E. F., & Ridout, T. N. (2013). Negative, angry, and ubiquitous: Political advertising in
2012. The Forum, 10, 51–61. doi: 10.1515/forum-2013-0004
Franz, M. M. (2013). Interest groups in electoral politics: 2012 in context. The Forum, 10, 62–
79, doi: 10.1515/forum-2013-0007
Green, D. P., & Gerber, A. S. (2008). Get out the vote: How to increase voter turnout. Brookings
Hao., J. (2014). A Real China; on user generated video: Audiovisual narratives of confucacians.
Journal for global sustainable information societies. Vol 12 (1).2014.Retrieved on 6th August, 2015 at > http://www.triple-c.at/index.php/tripleC/article/view/512/662
Hongjuan. H., Yi. L., Huiwei. L.,& Yu., L.(2011). Research on the Management of Electronic
Newspapers: Taking the National Library of China as an Example
Huang, C., Li, J., & Ross,K.,W. (2007). “Can Internet VoD be profitable?” in ACM
SIGCOMM, August 2007.
Huang, Y., Fu, J.,Z.,T., Chiu, M., Lui, J.,C.,C., & Huang, C.(2008).“Challenges, design and
analysis of a large-scale P2P VoD system,” in ACM SIGCOMM,
Jaimeson, K., & Hall, .(2010). Microtargeting and New media technology. Money in politics
Research. Aquda. Vol (16) p 4-10.
Ken-ichi., Y. (2014). Booming internet video sites in China; Current situation and challenges;
NHK Broadcasting Cultures Research Institute in Research. Retrieved on 9th July. 2015 from > http://www.nhk.or.jp/bunken/english/reports/pdf/report_14070101.pdf
Kim, Y. (2008). Media Consumption and Everyday Life in Asia. Advances in Internationalizing
Media. Routlege Publication. 1 (2) p. 6-23
Lamb, R., & Davidson, E. (2005). Information and communication technology challenges to
scientific professional identity. [Electronic version]. Information Society, Vol 21(1), 1-24.
Leary., J., P. (2009). Urban Exclusion. Civil Society and the Politics of TV in Venezuela
Societies. TV Urgent. Vol (99)2 (2009):p 25-53
Liu, S., Zhang-Shen, R., Jiang, W.,Rexford, J., & Chiang, M., (2008). “Performance bounds for
peer-assisted live streaming,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS
Massoulie, L., Twigg, A., Gkantsidis, W. & Rodriguez, P.(2007).“Randomize decentralized
broadcasting algorithms,” in IEEE INFOCOM.
McCarthy, J. F., & Boyd, D., M. (2005). Digital backchannels in shared physical spaces:
Experiences at an academic conference. Paper presented at the CHI ’05: CHI ’05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Portland, OR, USA, 1641-1644. Retrieved March 29, 2006 from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1056986
Owyang, J. (2007, July 30). Web strategy. The term “MicroMedia” takes hold. Retrieved on 5th
July 2015 from >http://www.web-strategist.com/blog/2007/07/30/the-term-micromedia-takes-hold/
Oxford Dictionaries. (2015). Microcinema. [ONLINE] Available on 6th August, 2015 at>
Parvez, N., Williamson, C., Mahanti, A., & Carlsson, N. (2008). “Analysis of bittorrent-like
protocols for on-demand stored media streaming,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS, 2008.
Pikas, C., K. (2006). The impact of ICT on informal scholary scientific communication. Working
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. 4th ed,
Prentice Hall Financial Times, Harlow.
Shaofang., L,.（2007). Practice on the Construction of Chinese Newspaper Database of Public
Sulivan. J., E. (2013). Online research in studies of the elite politics. Behaviour in Taiwan.
Tsukayama, H. (2013). “Microtargeting has growing influence in political campaigns, says
Interactive Advertising Bureau.” The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-tech/post/microtargeting-has growinginfluence-in-political-campaigns-says-interactive-advertisingbureau/2013/02/26/32e0723e-8023-11e2-b99e-6baf4ebe42df_blog.html.
Wei. Z,. (2007). Preservation and Protection of Newspapers on Research Microfilming &
Digitization. Working Paper